Porcelain Marks

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INTRODUCTION

Augustus II The Strong, an avid collector and enthusiast East Asian porcelain was founded in 1710 the first european porcelain factory, which in his words was to serve "the glory of the king and trade". To protect her, invested factory in heavily guarded and isolated Albrechtsburg Castle in Meissen, where workers were treated like prisoners.
In the early years, no one thought of placing the sign of the factory on the products. Because there was no competition, each porcelain have to come from the Meissen workshop. First signs were applied by hand, brush on unglazed art.

Initially, only in blue, but when I developed the green paint - even in this color, although they are very rare signature. When, in 1830. came to use rubber stamp, signed porcelain has become easier and faster. In the initial period of application signatures entrusted students or secondary employees who were unfortunately often inattentive and careless. Therefore, a large part of the marks of the early production of porcelain is blurred, vague or incomplete, and sometimes only the outlines are clear. In addition, the porous surface of the fired porcelain made the blue underglaze marks often have jagged outlines, making it difficult to identify and photographing.

one of the first marks of Meissen
color: blue / underglaze

one of the first marks of Meissen
impressed in the mass

mark of factory in Altenkunstadt
color: black / overglaze

mark of Rosenthal in Selb
multicolored decal
In the late 19th century, manufacturers often placed the additional markings on products or decor name above or below the mark, which is a further indication. When dating of younger porcelain, helpful is released in 1887, the British Trade Marks Act, requiring the placement markings of origin on the goods imported into the Great Britain ( for example: "Made in Germany" or "Germany").

In 1891, the United States established a similar law. This allows to conclude that all the products with indication on the country, have been manufactured after 1887. Unfortunately, we can not treat the opposite and say that all the products without the indication of the country of origin, were produced before 1887. For smaller objects, including porcelain, it was possible to apply the name of the country of origin, only on containers for the transportation and not on each piece. Occasionally used for gluing paper labels that are easily damaged and destroyed. Also were allowed such signs as: Prussia, Silesia, Bavaria and similar.

Since 1874 in the German Reich was a law on the protection of trademarks, which extended the protection of utility models in 1891. Shortcut DRGM (Deutsches Reich Gebrauchmusterschutz) with the manufacturer's mark meant that the product was subject to legal protection. It is also a signal for collectors that the item was manufactured after 1891. In 1894, entered into force the Act on the Protection of Trademarks, which replaced the previous one. Trademarks are recorded and subject to control by the Patent Office.
Besides marks of manufacturers can be often find additional signs indicating their registration, such as: dep, DEP, Deponiert, Schutzmarke, Gesetzlicher Schutz, gesetzl. geschĂźtzt, ges. geschĂźtzt, ges. gesch. and the like. This is an indication that the product was created after 1894.

In the mid-20th century came to use a decal marks. Marks were printed with special ceramic paint on the substrate, which after soaking can be easily transferred to porcelain. Recovery in endorse porcelain was the introduction of a new type of paint, which when applied to the glaze and heated to a temperature of 1200 - 1300 degrees Celsius combine with the softened enamel. Marks of this type look like underglaze.

Although the basic feature of identity remains a signature, you should pay special attention to the most important: the form and style of the product, decoration, colors, glazing, weight and sound ...
(based on: "Deutsche Porzellanmarken von 1710 bis heute" - Robert E. RĂśntgen - 6. Aufl. 2007 - Battenberg Verlag)
ATTENTION!
Marks with images and descriptions are provided in the resources of our database are only demonstrative and may not constitute the basis for exact dating or estimation of the porcelain value! Editors do not take responsibility for any use of content by website users!